We all think that women are the only people who suffer from PND. However father’s also can suffer PND and sadly might not seek assistance.
POSTNATAL DEPRESSION AND MEN
Research Identifies Paternal Depression
Depression in women related to pregnancy is a well known phenomena with an incidence rate between 10-30%. Most clinicians do not usually consider the possibility of depression in men related to the partner’s pregnancy. A meta analysis was published in a recent issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association which looked at 43 studies involving 28,004 participant studies which took place over the past 30 years. They used modern approved statistical methods and found that prenatal and postpartum depression was present in 10% of the subjects studied and that this was statistically significant.
Closer Look at The Data
The one year prevalence rate in men for depression would be expected to be 4.8% whereas the paternal depression rate between the first trimester and one year post partum was 10.1%. When the results were analyzed by location, the paternal depression in the United States was 14.1% compared to 8.2% internationally. In regard to timing, fathers experienced the highest rate of depression 3-6 months post partum although there were not enough studies that made this distinction to make conclusions that were statistically significant. The research data was not able to draw any conclusions about trends distinguishing prediction of severe depression from minor depression . The correlation between between paternal and maternal depression was positive and moderate in size. It has been shown that marital satisfaction in women is a close correlation of depression and is among the strongest predictors of maternal depression. However while the data showed some association between materal and paternal depression it was not established as a causal influence.
Maternal depression may be related to changing hormone levels and/or well known psychological factors related to the mother child bond and /or related to sleep deprivation as well as the impact of the long, difficult at times child care. It seems unlikely that hormonal levels are a key factor with men ( although I wouldn’t rule out the power of certain mind-body mechanisms, especially through the pituitary-adrenal axis ) until research studies are done. There obviously is a great deal of psychological meaning to men about becoming a father. Most fathers will take pride in producing a child and achieving this role but to some there may be concerns about no longer being young and free of responsibilities. The financial obligations of being a parent can be a burden on some men ( as well on on some women). All of these issues can trigger feeling of loss and depression. The modern man more than his father is likely to be sharing in some child care responsibilities . This can mean getting up at night to give the baby a bottle and change the diaper with the potential of sleep deprivation as well as frustration by infants who are not easily soothed. Finally pre-existing conditions of depression or bipolar disorders can be present in both men and women and can be exacerbated by a major life event such as a pregnancy .
Prenatal and Postpartum Screening for Depression Should Not be Limited to Women
Good prenatal and postpartum care of women should include some type of screening for depression. This may be in the form of a brief questionnaire or in the form of a distinct assessment by the clinician who sees the patient. Both methods may be used. This should be repeated periodically in followup visits. One needs to be particularly diligent if there is a previous history of depression or bipolar disorder . Now that there is data to support the concept that men can have depression related to pregnancy and childbirth , every effort should be made to extend the screening net to include the fathers. The easiest method would be to add screening questions to any written or verbal questionnaires that are utilized and include an appropriate question in the interpersonal examination by the clinician. It would also be a good idea for the clinician to invite the father in for a brief chat when he is available and even suggest that he should make an effort to be present for some of pre and postnatal visits.
FACTS ABOUT DEPRESSION RECOVERY AND MEN.
Depression affects far fewer men than women but it is still a figure of 6% on a international level. Although the medications and treatment offered to women having depression is similar to that available to men, the signs are not the same. So depression recovery in men has to be approached differently.
According to a good number of physicians and therapists, men react in a different way compared to females in terms of handling depression. Males are more prone to angry outbursts, bad temper and aggression. It is more ordinary for men to lose their self-control whilst women face higher levels of feelings of uselessness and desperation.
Nevertheless, a lot of the signs are shared by both men and women. A few of the most usual signs and symptoms are:
– feelings of sadness
– feelings of worthlessness for no apparent reason
– abrupt weightloss
– appetite changes
– putting on weight
– feeling irritated
– decreased energy levels
– often feeling exhausted and drowsy
– often feeling defensive for no reason at all
– unexplained aches and pains
– lack of ability to focus on things
Males who are depressed tend to cover their feelings and keep their emotions to themselves. While females find it easier to voice their sadness and are more likely to shed tears. They are as well more likely to increase their amount of sleeping hours and at times eat too much while men more regularly still attend work, go to the gym and continue their every day engagements.
Men also are likely to keep their thoughts to themselves rather than tell their family and friends how they are feeling. When this occurs, they often detach themselves from their familiar public life which tends to make matters worse and is one of the numerous reasons why depression amongst males can be difficult to determine.
Even though there are numerous treatments and drugs easily accessible to help men with depression recovery, it is often pretty challenging to persuade them to seek such remedies or even simply to see a physician. This is when their sickness gets worst.
If you know somebody who is going through depression attempt to persuade them to see a specialist so they can acquire the right treatment for them.
Make sure you give them more care and assistance. If you spot that they are experiencing frustration and further signs and symptoms connected to depression in males, attempt to reach out to them and offer a helping hand. You can give them some books or other materials to aid them understand their condition better. These resources might even persuade them to search for professional help.
Bear in mind that this condition is easier to handle at an early phase plus the fact that the earlier they can be supported the earlier their depression recovery can be initiated.
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MALE DEPRESSION AND EXERCISE
Although regular exercise is a necessary and important part of a healthy lifestyle, too much exercise can actually be detrimental. When a person’s desire for exercise becomes uncontrollable and excessive, an exercise addiction develops. Typically, the addiction forms in response to underlying negative emotions or feelings. In fact, male depression and exercise addiction often have a close relationship.
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, or NAMI, more than 6 million men in the United States experience at least one episode of depression every year. The organization defines depression as involving “disturbances in mood, concentration, sleep, activity level, interests, appetite and social behavior.” Symptoms of male depression vary widely, ranging from persistent sadness to difficulty concentrating and thoughts of suicide. Male depression tends to be more difficult to diagnose than female depression. NAMI explains that many men ignore the symptoms of depression or attempt to self-medicate through alcohol, drugs, risky behaviors or exercise.
Addiction and Depression
Many people with exercise addiction have underlying depression. For these people, exercise is often used as a distraction from the stress and anxiety in their lives. Although they feel as though they cannot control other parts of their life, they have a sense of control over their workout routines. A person depressed over their weight or personal appearance might also use excessive exercise to ward off these feelings of depression. Yet, interestingly, the relationship between exercise addiction and male depression often goes both ways. If a person with exercise addiction misses a workout, he often becomes significantly more depressed and anxious.
As with any type of addiction, exercise addiction is associated with certain dangers. An addiction to exercise can interrupt a person’s normal life, including obligations with work, school, family and friends. If these distractions persist, jobs may be lost, school courses may be failed and relationships may be damaged. Excessive exercise is also harmful to a person’s health, placing the body at risk for injury and illness. Additionally, if depression is the underlying cause of exercise addiction, this untreated depression is also quite dangerous.
As of December 2010, exercise addiction had not been recognized as a medical disorder. In fact, the Brain Physics website explains that there is no “formal definition or universally recognized set of symptoms” for the condition. For this reason, it is extremely difficult to diagnose exercise addiction. However, certain warning signs may indicate an addiction to exercise. These include exercising for more than two hours every day, following a strict and rigid exercise routine and exercising during a sickness or injury or to the point of pain. Allowing your exercise routine to interfere with work, school or social plans might also indicate an addiction to exercise. To ensure an accurate diagnosis, only a licensed medical professional should diagnose a patient with exercise addiction.
Rather than treating the exercise addiction, treatment should be geared toward resolving the underlying depression. Since a person with exercise addiction often becomes depressed after missing a workout, forcing him to quit exercising may actually exacerbate the depression.